Wenzhou Xinrong Electronics Co.,Ltd.
What are the skills required for purchasing electronic components?In the electronic manufacturing enterprises, the standard procurement process can be divided into two aspects of strategic procurement and order coordination, strategic procurement, including supplier development and management, order coordination is mainly responsible for material procurement plans, repeat orders and delivery of payment matters The This kind of organizational structure is very similar to the sales system, and many sales companies have established professional sales support departments to deal with a large number of repeat orders. The development and management of the supplier is the core of the entire procurement system, its performance is also related to the performance of the entire procurement department.
In general, the supplier development includes content: supply market competition analysis, search for qualified suppliers, assessment of potential suppliers, inquiry and quotation, negotiation of contract terms, and final supplier selection. In most multinational companies, the basic criteria for supplier development is the "Q.C.D.S" principle, which is the principle of equal quality, cost, delivery and service. Among the four, the quality factor is the most important, first of all to confirm whether the supplier has a stable and effective quality assurance system, and then confirm whether the supplier has the specific products needed to produce equipment and process capabilities. Followed by cost and price, to use the value of the project approach to the cost of the product involved in the analysis, and through a win-win price negotiations to achieve cost savings. In terms of delivery, to determine whether the supplier has sufficient production capacity, adequate human resources, there is no potential to expand production capacity. Finally, it is also very important that the supplier's pre-sales and after-sales service records. In the process of supplier development, we must first competitive analysis of the specific classification market, to understand who is the market leader, what is the current market trends, the major suppliers in the market positioning is what, Thus a potential understanding of potential suppliers.
What are the skills to be purchased for electronic components? Jpg
For example, in the resistance market, you need 0805 resistance today, you do not have to find that a few Japanese manufacturers, because they have been discontinued. At the same time you can also give your design department colleagues to make a proposal, try to use the mainstream components of the market to reduce costs. Resistive market is a less differentiated market, more suppliers, easy to transport, easy to replace. In the injection market, it is more complicated. First of all, the product is very different, and some companies specializing in precision injection molding, while the main large-scale workpiece. And because of the high cost of transportation of injection molding, localization is essential, you have to assess in the local market, the supply of injection products is oversupply or in short supply, the main suppliers and their competitors, etc., in order to do Ready to come.
On the basis of these analyzes, the company's purchasing department can establish a preliminary supplier database and make the corresponding product classification.
In general, divided into electronic, mechanical, auxiliary materials three categories. Electronic parts can be further divided into circuit boards, resistors, capacitors, inductors, the transistor, integrated circuits, etc .; mechanical subdivided into plastic parts, metal parts, packaging supplies, etc .; auxiliary materials, including chemicals, labels, Debris.
The next step is to look for potential suppliers. After careful analysis of the market, you can through a variety of public information and open channels to get the supplier contact. These channels include the supplier's active inquiry and presentation, professional media advertising, Internet search and so on. In this step, the most important thing is to make a preliminary screening for the supplier. It is recommended to use the uniform standard supplier status registration form to manage the information provided by the supplier.
This information should include: the supplier's place of registration, registered capital, major shareholder structure, production sites, equipment, personnel, major products, major customers, production capacity. By analyzing this information, you can assess the process capacity, supply stability, resource reliability, and its comprehensive competitiveness. In these suppliers, remove the supplier is clearly not suitable for further cooperation, you can come to a supplier inspection directory. Then, to arrange for field visits to suppliers, this step is essential. If necessary, in the audit team, you can invite the quality department and process engineers to participate, they will not only bring professional knowledge and experience, co-audit experience will help the company's internal communication and coordination. In the field study, you should use a unified scorecard to assess, and focus on its management system for review, such as operating instructions and other documents, quality records, requirements are exhaustive, can not be missed.
More important are the following:
* The sales contract review requires the sales department to evaluate each contract and confirm whether it can be completed on time.
* Supplier management, requires the establishment of a list of licensed suppliers, and have effective control procedures.
* Training management, the key positions of staff have a sound training assessment system, and a detailed record.
* Equipment management, equipment maintenance adjustment, a sound control system, and a complete record.
* Metrology management, instrument measurement to have a complete delivery system, which is very important.
In the study to communicate with the team members in time, at the end of the meeting, summed up the advantages and shortcomings of suppliers, and listen to the explanation of suppliers. If the supplier has an improvement intention, the supplier may be required to provide an improvement measure report for further evaluation. After the completion of the supplier review, the qualified suppliers to issue inquiry documents, generally including drawings and specifications, samples, quantity, general procurement cycle, the requirements of the delivery date and other details, and require suppliers to complete the offer within the specified date. After receiving the quotation, it is necessary to carefully analyze the terms of the article, the question to be thoroughly clarified, and the need for written records as a record, including fax, e-mail and so on. Subsequent work is quotation analysis, the quotation contains a lot of information, if possible, require suppliers to carry out the cost list quotation, asking them to list the cost of materials, labor, management fees, etc., and profit margins express. Compare the quotation of different suppliers, you will have a preliminary understanding of its rationality. Before the price negotiations, must be fully prepared to set a reasonable target price.
For small batch products, the core of its negotiations is the delivery time, requiring it to provide rapid response capability; on the assembly line, continuous production of the product, the core is the price. But must ensure that suppliers have a reasonable profit margins. At the same time, price negotiations are a continuous process, each supplier has its corresponding learning curve, in the supply for some time, the cost will continue to decline. With outstanding performance of suppliers to reach a strategic alliance to promote suppliers to improve the program to maximize the cost savings.
In fact, each supplier is an expert in the field, and the advice of the supplier is often a surprise. There have been suppliers to recommend alternative raw materials, such as the use of South Korean steel instead of Swiss products, the cost savings of up to 50%, and the performance fully meet the requirements, which is simply rely on the negotiations can not reach the price reduction rate. Through strategic alliances, participation in design, suppliers can effectively help us reduce costs. There is also a very important aspect of hidden costs. Procurement cycle, inventory, transportation and so on are invisible costs, to conditional suppliers into the timely delivery system, to minimize inventory and reduce the company's total cost.
Procurement process: including the collection of information, inquiry, parity, bargaining, assessment, cable, decision, requisition, order, coordination and communication, reminder, purchase acceptance, finishing payment.
Purchasing (purchasing): refers to the enterprise under certain conditions, from the supply market access to products or services as a corporate resource to ensure that the production and business activities to carry out a normal business activities. Procurement practice can be divided into two parts: sourcing and sourcing.
A. Strong ability to work Procurement is a very complex, and requires a high job, the buyer should have the basic ability to work is also quite diverse. Purchasers must have a high level of analytical, predictive, expressive and professional knowledge. Purchasers must broaden their horizons, have the ability to "look at the color", the future supply of materials to the trend of premeditated countermeasures. A-3 expression ability buyers whether the language or text communication with the supplier, must be able to correctly and clearly express the procurement of various conditions, such as specifications, quantity, price, delivery time, payment methods, to avoid ambiguous , Breed misunderstanding. The face of busy procurement work, must make the procurement staff with "long story short, concise" expression, so as not to waste time. "Dawn of reason, moving to love" to fight for procurement conditions, but also the procurement staff must exercise the expression skills.
B. A certain knowledge and experience buyers, especially managers should have at least more than a bachelor's degree, because received formal college education and training of students, their expertise and skills are more in line with the needs of procurement work. In addition, the buyer is best to have business knowledge, such as business management, circulation management, popular merchandise or marketing and other departments, and had to repair commodity information, statistics, marketing, business personnel management staff is preferred. B-1. Product Knowledge Whichever material is procured, it is necessary to have a basic understanding of the subject matter you want to purchase. We are very clear that a student who has been engaged in chemical machinery procurement for many years because of his work needs to switch to electronic components procurement, although he has been engaged in procurement for many years, but he will still feel a bit overwhelmed if he wants to adapt to the new role as soon as possible Timely to supplement the knowledge of electronic components, to add a lot of ways, such as self-study, to participate in relevant professional training courses. Some buyers believe that the buyer is not engaged in research and development, and often have the engineering and technical personnel and quality control personnel assistance, so do not have to master too much professional knowledge, holding this view of the buyer must be aware of those Can support your engineering and quality control personnel is not always in your left and right, and sometimes they may not be able to help you for various reasons.
C. Good character buyers must have the following good character: clean buyers deal with the "order" and "banknote" is not much difference, it will inevitably be "mercenary" surrounded by suppliers. Whether it is coercion (through interpersonal relationships) or inducement (rebates or red envelopes), buyers must be honest, maintain "normal", "do not mind", "re-forget" people, is difficult to do the procurement work. Professionalism "out of stock or out of stock" is the biggest dereliction of duty for procurement personnel. Although there are many reasons for the shortage, if the procurement staff can have "the person who is my" attitude, a high degree of responsibility for the procurement of materials, the loss of the enterprise will be greatly reduced. Moderate and patience Although the buyers in the sale of the more advantage, but the attitude of suppliers, must be fair and mutually beneficial, even under the shame asked, humbly ask for advice, not arrogant, arrogant and rude. Negotiations with the supplier or bargaining process, may be quite difficult and complex, buyers need more patience, waiting for the cultivation, in order to "want to die", leisurely work. Living in the disadvantage, but also tolerant for the whole, not bland, grams have been public. To comply with the discipline of the procurement staff to go out to implement the procurement of personnel, their words and deeds represent the business and deal with the outside world, their work is not only affect the efficiency of the enterprise, but also affect the reputation of the enterprise, therefore, the provisions of the procurement of a number of enterprises Discipline, the buyer must consciously abide by, strictly enforced.